Tuesday, April 12, 2005

China Doesn't Condone Anti-Japanese Violences, Japan says China is "scary"! Back to the Future?

Japan and China are currently making arrangements to
hold talks between their foreign ministers in Beijing on
April 17...

Foreign Minister Nobutaka Machimura is expected to use
the opportunity to urge his Chinese counterpart, Li
Zhaoxing, to take steps to prevent such vandalism.

Thousands of Chinese protesters marched in Beijing,
accusing Tokyo of distorting its wartime past and urging
a boycott of Japanese products. Some participants
hurled rocks, eggs and plastic bottles at the embassy
and the ambassador's residence as well as restaurants
and a bank.

No official figures were announced, but estimates of the
number of anti-Japanese protesters in the demonstration
ranged from 10,000 to 20,000. It is believed to be the
first major anti-Japanese demonstration in Beijing since
the two countries normalized relations in 1972.

About 20 window panes were broken at the embassy,
according to a Japanese Embassy official. Tensions
between the two countries have flared in recent weeks
over claims new Japanese textbooks fail to accurately
report atrocities committed during the country's
occupation of China before and during World War II, most
notably the Nanjing massacre in 1937 in which hundreds
of thousands of civilians died. The textbook also
states Japan owns another set of islands it calls
Senkaku -- a claim which the Chinese dispute. China
calls the islands the Diaoyu.

When asked if China would apologize to Japan Foreign
Ministry spokesman Qin Gang said the demonstration ``was
a completely spontaneous'' reaction by the Chinese
people. Qin also said China had deployed police to
ensure the safety of employees working in the Japanese
embassy and in China.

China opposes Japan's bid for a permanent seat on the
United Nation's Security Council and continues to
criticize annual visits by Japanese prime ministers to a
shrine honoring war criminals among the nation's honored

Here we are.

Japan and China ministers are to meet April 17th... ?

History is (not) to repeat itself. Still, April 17 is
not a very good memory for China.

Apr. 17, 1895, ending the First Sino-Japanese War,
Shimonoseki Treaty was negotiated and signed by Ito
Hirobumi for Japan and Li Hung-chang for China.

Harsh terms were imposed on a badly defeated China. The
treaty provided for the end of Chinese suzerainty over
Korea, giving Korea independence, and for the cession to
Japan of Taiwan, the Pescadores islands, and Port Arthur
and the Liaodong peninsula. Japan also imposed a large
indemnity and forced China to open five new treaty

A week after the treaty was signed, however, Russia,
France, and Germany together—in the so-called Triple
Intervention—demanded that Japan renounce claims to Port
Arthur and the Liaodong peninsula. Japan reluctantly
agreed (Nov., 1895), but China was forced to pay an
additional indemnity.

Quotes : Signed at Shimonoseki 17 April 1895 the
"Peace" treaty entered into Force 8 May 1895 by the
exchange of the instruments of ratification at Chefoo
after war :

"His Majesty the Emperor of Japan and His Majesty the
Emperor of China, desiring to restore the blessings of
peace to their countries and subjects and to remove all
cause for future complications, have named as their
Plenipotentiaries for the purpose of concluding a Treaty
of Peace, that is to say:

His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, Count ITO Hirobumi,
Junii, Grand Cross of the Imperial Order of Paullownia,
Minister President of State; and Viscount MUTSU
Munemitsu, Junii, First Class of the Imperial Order of
the Sacred Treasure, Minister of State for Foreign

And His Majesty the Emperor of China, LI Hung-chang,
Senior Tutor to the Heir Apparent, Senior Grand
Secretary of State, Minister Superintendent of Trade for
the Northern Ports of China, Viceroy of the province of
Chili, and Earl of the First Rank; and LI Ching-fong,
Ex-Minister of the Diplomatic Service, of the Second
Official Rank:

Who, after having exchanged their full powers, which
were found to be in good and proper form, have agreed to
the following Articles:—

Article 1

China recognises definitively the full and complete
independence and autonomy of Korea, and, in consequence,
the payment of tribute and the performance of ceremonies
and formalities by Korea to China, in derogation of such
independence and autonomy, shall wholly cease for the

Article 2

China cedes to Japan in perpetuity and full sovereignty
the following territories, together with all
fortifications, arsenals, and public property thereon:—

(a) The southern portion of the province of Fêngtien
within the following boundaries [1]:

The line of demarcation begins at the mouth of the River
Yalu and ascends that stream to the mouth of the River
An-ping, from thence the line runs to Fêng-huang, from
thence to Hai-cheng, from thence to Ying-kow, forming a
line which describes the southern portion of the
territory. The places above named are included in the
ceded territory. When the line reaches the River Liao
at Ying-kow, it follows the course of the stream to its
mouth, where it terminates. The mid-channel of the
River Liao shall be taken as the line of demarcation.

This cession also includes all islands appertaining or
belonging to the province of Fêngtien situated in the
eastern portion of the Bay of Liao-tung and the northern
portion of the Yellow Sea.

(b) The island of Formosa, together with all islands
appertaining or belonging to the said island of Formosa.

(c) The Pescadores Group, that is to say, all islands
lying between the 119th and 120th degrees of longitude
east of Greenwich and the 23rd and 24th degrees of north

Article 3 [2]

The alignment of the frontiers described in the
preceding Article, and shown on the annexed map, shall
be subject to verification and demarcation on the spot
by a Joint Commission of Delimitation, consisting of two
or more Japanese and two or more Chinese delegates, to
be appointed immediately after the exchange of the
ratifications of this Act. In case the boundaries laid
down in this Act are found to be defective at any point,
either on account of topography or in consideration of
good administration, it shall also be the duty of the
Delimitation Commission to rectify the same. The
Delimitation Commission will enter upon its duties as
soon as possible, and will bring its labours to a
conclusion within the period of one year after
appointment. The alignments laid down in this Act
shall, however, be maintained until the rectifications
of the Delimitation Commission, if any are made, shall
have received the approval of the Governments of Japan
and China.

Article 4

China agrees to pay to Japan as a war indemnity the sum
of 200,000,000 Kuping taels; the said sum to be paid in
eight installments. The first installment of 50,000,000
taels to be paid within six months, and the second
installment of 50,000,000 to be paid within twelve
months, after the exchange of the ratifications of this
Act. The remaining sum to be paid in six equal
installments as follows: the first of such equal annual
installments to be paid within two years, the second
within three years, the third within four years, the
fourth within five years, the fifth within six years,
and the the sixth within seven years, after the exchange
of the ratifications of this Act. Interest at the rate
of 5 per centum per annum shall begin to run on all
unpaid portions of the said indemnity from the date the
first installment falls due. China shall, however, have
the right to pay by anticipation at any time any or all
of the said installments. In case the whole amount of
the said indemnity is paid within three years after the
exchange of the ratifications of the present Act all
interest shall be waived, and the interest for two years
and a half or for any less period, if any already paid,
shall be included as part of the principal amount of the

Article 5

The inhabitants of the territories ceded to Japan who
wish to take up their residence outside the ceded
districts shall be at liberty to sell their real
property and retire. For this purpose a period of two
years from the date of the exchange of ratifications of
the present Act shall be granted. At the expiration of
that period those of the inhabitants who shall not have
left such territories shall, at the option of Japan, be
deemed to be Japanese subjects. Each of the two
Governments shall, immediately upon the exchange of the
ratifications of the present Act, send one or more
Commissioners to Formosa to effect a final transfer of
that province, and within the space of two months after
the exchange of the ratifications of this Act such
transfer shall be completed.

Article 6

All Treaties between Japan and China having come to an
end as a consequence of war, China engages, immediately
upon the exchange of the ratifications of this Act, to
appoint Plenipotentiaries to conclude with the Japanese
Plenipotentiaries, a Treaty of Commerce and Navigation
and a Convention to regulate Frontier Intercourse and
Trade. The Treaties, Conventions, and Regulations now
subsisting between China and the European Powers shall
serve as a basis for the said Treaty and Convention
between Japan and China. From the date of the exchange
of ratifications of this Act until the said Treaty and
Convention are brought into actual operation, the
Japanese Governments, its officials, commerce,
navigation, frontier intercourse and trade, industries,
ships, and subjects, shall in every respect be accorded
by China most favoured nation treatment.

China makes, in addition, the following concessions, to
take effect six months after the date of the present

First.—The following cities, towns, and ports, in
addition to those already opened, shall be opened to the
trade, residence, industries, and manufactures of
Japanese subjects, under the same conditions and with
the same privileges and facilities as exist at the
present open cities, towns, and ports of China: 1.
Shashih, in the province of Hupeh. 2. Chungking, in
the province of Szechwan. 3. Suchow, in the province
of Kiangsu. 4. Hangchow, in the province of Chekiang.

The Japanese Government shall have the right to station
consuls at any or all of the above named places.

Second.—Steam navigation for vessels under the Japanese
flag, for the conveyance of passengers and cargo, shall
be extended to the following places: 1. On the Upper
Yangtze River, from Ichang to Chungking. 2. On the
Woosung River and the Canal, from Shanghai to Suchow and

The rules and regulations that now govern the navigation
of the inland waters of China by Foreign vessels shall,
so far as applicable, be enforced, in respect to the
above named routes, until new rules and regulations are
conjointly agreed to.

Third.—Japanese subjects purchasing goods or produce in
the interior of China, or transporting imported
merchandise into the interior of China, shall have the
right temporarily to rent or hire warehouses for the
storage of the articles so purchased or transported
without the payment of any taxes or extractions

Fourth.—Japanese subjects shall be free to engage in all
kinds of manufacturing industries in all the open
cities, towns, and ports of China, and shall be at
liberty to import into China all kinds of machinery,
paying only the stipulated import duties thereon.

All articles manufactured by Japanese subjects in China
shall, in respect of inland transit and internal taxes,
duties, charges, and exactions of all kinds, and also in
respect of warehousing and storage facilities in the
interior of China, stand upon the same footing and enjoy
the same privileges and exemptions as merchandise
imported by Japanese subjects into China.

In the event additional rules and regulations are
necessary in connexion with these concessions, they
shall be embodied in the Treaty of Commerce and
Navigation provided for by this Article.

Article 7

Subject to the provisions of the next succeeding
Article, the evacuation of China by the armies of Japan
shall be completely effected within three months after
the exchange of the ratificatioins of the present Act.

Article 8

As a guarantee of the faithful performance of the
stipulations of this Act, China consents to the
temporary occupation by the military forces of Japan of
Weihaiwei, in the province of Shantung. [3] Upon
payment of the first two installments of the war
indemnity herein stipulated for and the exchange of the
ratifications of the Treaty of Commerce and navigation,
the said place shall be evacuated by the Japanese
forces, provided the Chinese Government consents to
pledge, under suitable and sufficient arrangements, the
Customs revenue of China as security for the payment of
the principal and interest of the remaining installments
of the said indemnity. In the event that no such
arrangements are concluded, such evacuation shall only
take place upon the payment of the final installment of
said indemnity. It is, however, expressly understood
that no such evacuation shall take place until after the
exchange of the ratifications of the Treaty of Commerce
and Navigation.

Article 9

Immediately upon the exchange of the ratifications of
this Act, all prisoners of war then held shall be
restored, and China undertakes not to ill-treat or
punish prisoners of war so restored to her by Japan.
China also engages to at once release all Japanese
subjects accused of being military spies or charged with
any other military offenses. China further engages not
to punish in any manner, nor to allow to be punished,
those Chinese subjects who have in any manner been
compromised in their relations with the Japanese army
during the war.

Article 10

All offensive military operations shall cease upon the
exchange of the ratifications of this Act.

Article 11

The present Act shall be ratified by their Majesties the
Emperor of Japan and the Emperor of China, and the
ratifications shall be exchanged at Chefoo on the 8th
day of the 5th month of the 28th year of MEIJI,
corresponding to the 14th day of the 4th month of the
21st year of KUANG HSÜ. In witness whereof the
respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same and
affixed thereto the seal of their arms. Done in
Shimonoseki, in duplicate, this 17th day of the fourth
month of the 28th year of MEIJI, corresponding to the
23rd day of the 3rd month of the 21st year of KUANG HSÜ.

Count ITO HIROBUMI, [L.S.] Junii, Grand Cross of the
Imperial Order of Paullownia Minister President of State
Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan

Viscount MUTSU MUNEMITSU, [L.S.] Junii, First Class of
the Imperial Order of the Sacred Treasure Minister of
State for Foreign Affairs Plenipotentiary of His Majesty
the Emperor of Japan

LI HUNG-CHANG, [L.S.] Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the
Emperor of China Senior Tutor to the Heir Apparent
Senior Grand Secretary of State Minister Superintendent
of Trade for the Northern Ports of China Viceroy of the
province of Chili Earl of the First Rank

LI CHING-FONG Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor
of China Ex-Minister of the Diplomatic Service, of the
Second Official Rank.

end of quotes"

annex :

Portrait of Ito Hirobumi

1841–1909, Japanese statesman, the outstanding figure in
the modernization of Japan. As a young Choshu samurai,
he was a xenophobe. In 1863 he visited Europe, studied
science in England, and became convinced of the
necessity of adopting Western ways. After the Meiji
restoration, Ito served in the ministries of foreign
affairs, finance, and industry. He was a member of the
mission sent abroad (1871) under Prince Iwakura to
revise the unequal treaties with the Western powers and
study Western technology. In 1873, Ito became a member
of the ruling council and worked to modernize Japan and
solidify the power of the oligarchs. By 1881 he forced
Shigenobu Okuma to resign and thus became the foremost
political power in Japan.

In 1882 he headed the mission sent abroad to study
foreign governments. Returning, he established a
cabinet and civil service (1885) and a privy council
(1888), which he headed. He supervised (1883–89) the
drafting of the constitution of 1889 and was intimate
adviser to the emperor. In 1885 he negotiated the
Li-Ito Convention, which postponed war with China over
Korea. As prime minister (1892–96) he supported the
Sino-Japanese War and negotiated the Treaty of
Shimonoseki. After the war he became a supporter of
party government, opposing Prince Yamagata. He was the
first president of the Seiyukai party. Again prime
minister (1898, 1900–1901), he tried to negotiate a
peaceful settlement with Russia, but, failing, was
forced to increase military appropriations.

From 1901 to 1913 the premiership alternated between his
protégé, Kimmochi Saionji, and Taro Katsura, a follower
of Yamagata. In 1905, Ito forced an agreement making
Korea a virtual protectorate of Japan and became (1906)
resident general there. His assassination by a Korean
in 1909 served as a pretext for annexation of Korea.

JjL (& British Library & Shimonoseki city archives)

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